Solar 101

Introduction to Solar Energy: How It Works and Why It Matters.

Table of Contents

Improve Solar Performance: Part 1

Solar energy has been around for decades, but it's only in recent years that it's become a practical and affordable source of electricity for homes and businesses. In this article, we'll take a closer look at how solar power works and why it's such an attractive alternative to traditional fossil fuels.

What is Solar Power?

Solar power is a form of renewable energy that uses the energy from the sun to produce electricity. It works by converting sunlight into electrical energy through the use of photovoltaic (PV) cells. These cells are made from semiconductor materials that absorb photons from the sun’s rays and convert them into electrons, which can then be used to power electrical devices.

How Do Solar Panels Work?

Solar panels are the most common way of harnessing solar power. They consist of a series of PV cells that are connected together to form a module. When sunlight hits the panel, the PV cells absorb the energy and generate an electric current.

The electrical current is then sent through a series of wires and circuits to an inverter, which converts the DC current generated by the PV cells into AC current that can be used to power homes and businesses. The electricity can be used immediately or stored in batteries for use at a later time.

What Factors Affect Solar Panel Efficiency?

The amount of electricity that a solar panel can generate depends on several factors, including:

  • The amount of sunlight the panel receives: Solar panels generate more electricity when they are exposed to direct sunlight for long periods of time. Shaded or partially shaded panels will produce less electricity.
  • The efficiency of the PV cells: The efficiency of PV cells varies from panel to panel. More efficient cells will produce more electricity, but they are also more expensive.
  • The size and orientation of the panel: Larger panels will produce more electricity than smaller panels, while panels that face directly towards the sun will produce more electricity than panels that face away from it.
  • The temperature of the panel: Solar panels work best in cooler temperatures. If a panel gets too hot, its efficiency will decrease.

What Are the Benefits of Solar Power?

There are many benefits to using solar power, including:

  • It’s a clean and renewable source of energy: Solar power produces no greenhouse gases or other pollutants, making it an ideal choice for those who want to reduce their carbon footprint.
  • It’s a decentralized source of energy: Solar panels can be installed right on the roof of a home or business, which means that the electricity is produced right where it is needed. This reduces the need for expensive transmission lines and other infrastructure.
  • It’s becoming more affordable: In recent years, the cost of solar panels has dropped significantly, making them more accessible to homeowners and businesses. In some parts of the world, solar power is now cheaper than traditional fossil fuels.

What Are the Challenges of Solar Power?

There are still challenges to be overcome when it comes to solar power. One of the biggest challenges is storage. Solar panels only produce electricity when the sun is shining, which means that energy storage solutions, such as batteries, are needed to store excess energy for use when the sun is not shining. This can add to the cost of a solar power system.

Another challenge is that solar power is not always reliable. Cloudy days and other weather conditions can reduce the amount of electricity that solar panels can generate. This means that backup power sources, such as a generator or connection to the grid, may be needed.


Solar power is a clean, renewable, and increasingly affordable source of energy that has the potential to revolutionize the way we produce electricity. By understanding how solar power works and the benefits and challenges associated with it, homeowners and businesses can